Category Archives: InfoSolutions

[EN] WDOxy/Fuzzy-control for improved Nitrogen Removal and Energy Saving in WWTP with predenitrification


Application of fuzzy-logic to improve the control of the activated sludge process. WDOxy-Controller is a dynamic (non-deterministic/fuzzy) approach model to “Dissolved Oxygen Control Strategy” in wastewater nutrient removing, basically based on using of Ione Selective (NH4+, NO3-) on-line analyzers, but in option it is possible to use on-line ORP/pH (Redox potential) low-cost sensors too. Fuzzy-logic based control strategies for wastewater treatment plants with pre-denitrification should lead to better effluent quality and, in parallel, to a reduction of energy consumption. The WDOxy goal is to develop a “dynamic DO set-up on need” calculation able to provide a continuous nutrient removal process control, under legal outlet limits and within a sustainable energy saving control. Compared to the operation with fixed nitrification/denitrification zones and constant DO concentrations, the required air-flow could be reduced up to 24% by using fuzzy-logic based control strategies. In fact, Traditional “DO Closed Loop Control” (aeration control) is a well-known automation procedure that does not allows to timely face the real need of oxidation that biological process dynamically requires from time to time. On the contrary, WDOxy control is able to face DO requirement, in all nutrient removal biological processes (N and P), in a cost efficient way, that means, by dosing energy on the base of a real-time evaluation of biomass metabolism.


The WDOxy fuzzy-controller procedure can be easily implemented in modern control and supervision systems and  the control characteristics can be followed and modified during operation.


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[EN-IT] MICROexpert: Activated Sludge Diagnostic Tool

MICROexpert: an effective Professional Tool to prevent solid separation problems

MICRO MICROexpert- Technical Sheet

MICROexpert is a knowledge based software tool for diagnosis and trouble-shooting of operational problems in activated sludge. It deals with suspended-solid systems in aerobic or in nutrient removing (N and P) processes, in CSTR (Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor) or Plug Flow reactors. The main goal of this tool is:

  • Detecting, at the right time, functional instability and anomalies in  progress;
  • Advising on possible corrective operations to prevent solid separation problems (bulking, foaming, rising, pin point floc, etc.), and therefore,
  • Avoiding failures of effluent quality.



A holistic approach to diagnosis MICROexpert major strength is its data-fusion, which is the ability to  merge consistently different type of data and information to the best diagnosis:

  • Microscopic sludge analysis on microfauna, sludge biotic index (SBI), sludge floc morphology and filamentous bacterial growth;
  • Laboratory physico-chemical analysis;
  • Operative parameters evaluated on field;
  • Visual investigation on efficiency of each wastewater treatment.

Incubation period and real-time process control MICROexpert exploits the peculiar “slow” dynamics of activated sludge and its incubation time (days before the effects of biological undesiderable anomalies) to predict diagnosis. Infact, a problem could not be promptly detect before it has occurred, by the only physico-chemical parameters. Generally, an incubation period is a considerable lapse of time…  This period (sometimes weeks), has to deal with a lack of a timely diagnosis!



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[EN] Water Quality Sensor Technology

EPA – Commonly Used Water Quality Sensors Can Detect Intentional Drinking Water Contamination

Free chlorine and total organic carbon sensors most successful for detecting contamination in tests using selected biological and chemical contaminants.

EPA has released Distribution System Water Quality Monitoring: Sensor Technology Evaluation Methodology and Results – A Guide for Sensor Manufacturers and Water Utilities, which summarizes the results of tests with various online (i.e., real-time) water quality sensors to see if they could provide dual use for early warning of intentional contamination, as well as monitoring general water
quality. Only sensors most commonly used by water utilities were tested.
Free chlorine and total organic carbon (TOC) sensors were the most successful in detecting a number of chemical and biological contaminants.

  • Free chlorine levels noticeably dropped in the presence of various contaminants
  • TOC sensors were successful in detecting carbon containing contaminants or carrier liquids

EPA- Distribution System Water Quality Monitoring: Sensor Technology Evaluation Methodology and Results

This report, titled “Distribution System Water Quality Monitoring: Sensor Technology Evaluation Methodology and Results – A Guide for Sensor Manufacturers and Water Utilities,” provides an overview of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) research results from investigating water quality monitoring sensor technologies that might be used to serve as a real-time contamination warning system (CWS) when a contaminant is introduced into a drinking water distribution system. EPA’s concept of CWS for protecting water distribution systems is discussed in Chapter 1.0. A principal component of such a system is online water quality monitoring.
Based on a review of available online water quality monitoring sensor technologies, an early determination was made that it was not technically feasible to accurately identify and quantify the many different types of contaminants that could potentially be introduced into the drinking water supply/distribution system. Furthermore, because online sensor technologies need to be economically suitable for mass deployment within a distribution system, EPA focused its research on identifying sensor technologies that could be used to detect anomalous changes in water quality due to contamination event(s). Once a water quality anomaly is detected, the water utility operator is alerted, and further actions (e.g., sampling and analysis) could be undertaken by the operator to identify and quantify the contaminant if necessary. This report focuses on EPA’s research on pilot-scale evaluations of available online water quality monitoring sensor instrumentation.

EPA -Water Quality Standards Academy


[EN] Business Modeling & Development

Business Modeling & Development (BMD) – Service

Innovation -> Value -> Quality -> Marketing

Our business deveopment approach is based on enhancing of:

  • Valuequality, efficiency
  • Reputation: quality, marketing
  • Sales: marketing, economy
  • Profit: economy, efficiency


BM = f (Value, Reputation, Sales, Profit)



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[EN] Advanced Process Control Service

Advanced Process Control & Artificial Intelligence (APC/AI) – Service

Data -> Info -> Knowledge -> Fault Detection

Process Optimization begin with a deep Knowledge and Understanding of process …

Our APC  approach is based on enhancing of:

  • Data Validation & Qualification (ISO/IEC 9126)
  • Multivariate Data  & Trend Analysis (Data Mining – Knowledge extraction)
  • Process Performance Analysis (KPI) – Early Warnings (EWS)
  • Fault Detection & Diagnosis (FDD) – Modeling & Forecasting
  • Econometric Modeling & Optimization.


APC =f (KPI, Early Warning, Fault Detection, Modelling)

See also:


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[EN] Mobile Solar PV Generator

Italy-Turin_iKUBE F150_1

Ready to use solar generator to garantee up to 3kW Power Supply.

Designed to provide electricity in all areas of the globe not covered by a distribution grid and for all uses that require to be able to move their energy source. It can work even in the absence of sunshine offering the advantage of compactness, low noise, no fumes and fuel costs. The batteries contained in the base of only 1 m3 are recharged by the photovoltaic generator which, with its surface of 9 m2, develops a power of 1,5 kW.

Autonomy of  free Electric Power  for farms, agricolture, irrigation, lighting, campgrounds, etc.

Key features:

  • Cost Effective – no fuel needed, low maintanence costs.
  • Easy to Transport – optimized Power vs Volume ratio, “folded” mode for transportation.
  • Sustainable – no fumes, no pollution, no noise.


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[EN] Water Quality EarlyWarning: 2WQI on-line index


WQI- Unfailing Water Quality

Why it is so important to measure and evaluate in real time the quality of water with respect to its conformity with the target?

It is sufficient to think about the drinkng water vulnerability, with reference both to events of accidental pollution, that intentional, but the concept also applies to the secondary water management.

Having a pre-alarm signal (Early Warning) and a timely measurement of water quality, it can preserve phenomena induced by even very dangerous for health and for the management of the same water compared with the legal requirements.

Here is showed a “knowledge model based” software sensor (2WQI), that by using the class of origin and destination of water, it is able to interpret and extrapolate the on-line Quality Index of water (on a standardized scale 0-100), and the Quality /Compliance rate (2WQI). This is a special “Fuzzy” algorithm software application, able to interpret a measure of a “cluster” of on-line low-cost sensors as:  pH / ORP, Conductivity, Turbidity, ISE, etc..

The basic concept of 2WQI comes from the most well-known (but assessable only “off-line”) WQI quality index, developed in the early ’70s by the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) to compare the quality of different water bodies and monitor the variations in time of the quality of a water body.

This algorithm is available as code to implement the common monitoring systems (PLC / SCADA).

At a glance:

  • EarlyWarning approach by use of real-time Trend Analysis. Thanks to Knowledge embedded Software Sensors, it is possible to make a Fuzzy Fusion among values from water quality on-line parameters, water process knowledge base and trend analysis forecasting, referring to required compliance of each industrial water re-use.
  •  A Bi-dimensional Water Quality Index (2WQI) will be developed as a real-time measurement of water management performance in terms of specific water quality (pollution level) and compliance (rate of respect of limits required in industrial process).

In fact, one of the technological limitations regarding the guarantee continuity and quality of the service integrated water, depends primarily on the ability to detect in real time, alarm events (early warning), the trend function and symptoms that frequently precede the occurrence of events critical process and /or operating / maintenance.

The ability to generate real-time information with the model 2WQI is an important advantage especially in the application of:

  • risk monitoring and security;
  • energy savings and process optimization;
  • monitoring of maintenance (predictive) according condition;
  • control and regulation of complex systems.

See also:  ASWR-Fuzzy-Logic-Water-Quality-Index-and-Importance-of-Water-Quality-Parame.pdf_2189


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[EN] WWTP/check: Checking Procedure for Biological Nutrient Removal Processes with evaluation of possible Energy/Cost Saving in pre-Denitrification/Nitrification scheme

WWTPWWTPcheck – Math Model 

Nitrogen Removal and Control Strategy in Continuous-Flow-Aeration 

WWTPcheck Model is based on typical Mathematical Models referring in the field (ASM 1/2/3, WPRC), but it supplemented with Performance Indicators (KPIs), which also provide information on the Residual Depurative Capacity. The predenitrification process was first developed and proposed by Ludzack and Ettinger (1962) and later modified by Barnard (1973), who completely separated the anoxic and aerobic reactors, recycling the settler underflow to the anoxic reactor, and providing an additional recycle from the aerobic to the anoxic reactor, see Figure below:


WWTPcheck Flow scheme:  Modified Ludzack-Ettinger process (Denitro/Nitro)

Main Functionalities of Evaluation of WWTPcheck  procedure:

  • Percentage of Performance of Biological Nutrient Removal Process.
  • Min/Max values of Dissolved Oxygen required to avoid process problems (bulking, etc.).
  • Characterization of Functional Parameters of the Aeration System.
  • Percentage of possible Energy Saving in the Aeration System (variable DO setpoint calculation on the base of min/max biological need…).
  • Energy required for Aeration System.
  • Percentage of Electrical Energy Cost Saving.
  • Percentage of Sludge/Waste produced and their Cost.
  • Customized Input/Output Reporting.

The WWTP/check procedure is  available in MS-Excel file (.xls or .xlsx – MS Office-Excel 2007 or compatibles) to be better used as a checking tool and test.


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[IT] Water Regulations

  • Dlgs_152_06_agg2010 – Decreto legislativo 3 aprile 2006, n. 152 – Norme in materia ambientale (G.U. n. 88 del 14 aprile 2006)

MBBR/IFAS Model: Math Procedure for Upgrading of existing WWTP by using Carrier

Hydroxyl-Pac (biofilm growth under magnification) TRANSPARENTThe  Mathematical Procedure aims at to  evaluate  the capacity of the purification, in terms of removing carbon and nitrogen (C, N), in pre-existing activated sludgeplants (AS), avoiding structural modifications on biological reactors volume, but integrating them with IFAS/MBBR (Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor) technological solution. The functionality of the biomass suspended (MLSS) is enhanced with an additional system to immobilized biomass, through the use of a system consisting of granular plastic supports high ratio surface/mass  (Carrier). The added Carrier creates a natural habitat for the development of a biofilm layer (adherent biomass), mainly responsible for the phenomena of nitrification of ammonia contained in the sewage to be purified. The IFAS math procedure, although starting from technical-scientific and experimental approach available in the literature, it is defined by a heuristic model that allows to determine the “equivalent effect induced” as process IFAS / MBBR, or the”virtual increase in volume” of the reactor AS (ie concentration of total biomass), as a result of the integration process with the immobilized biomass in IFAS.

In other words, the WIFAS procedure assimilates the reactor AS, enhanced with the process IFAS, to a “increased” reactor volume, having a final behavior equivalent to that of a dimensional expansion of the initial reactor AS.
The WIFAS math procedure integrates SWater or WWTP/check code.


The IFAS procedure is also available in MS-Excel file to be better used as a checking tool and test.


For INFO and a quote: