Tag Archives: Environment

SWATER Mix 5.0: MultiFunctional Testing & Upgrading Software Tool for Urban and Industrial WWTP

SWATERcropped-fa-27-09-2000.jpg ITA Italian Version 

SWATER Mix: a Knowledge Based Simulator and Decisions Support software Tool, for Wastewater Treatment Plants 

WaterOnLine  Bilingual Procedure (EN/IT) –   S.I./U.S. Units Converter Tool (SWater add-on)

SWater Mix is an innovative software procedure to support design/up-grading, testing and simulation of urban/industrial and mixed wastewater treatment and/or equivalent. It is born to meet needs of “field”, allowing to verify, in all operative conditions, operational performance and the residual capacity of each of the different sections of the cleaning treatment (physical-chemical-biological). Its approach allows to consider “dimensioning and   verification” like two “points of view” of a same object. That is to say the corrected functionality of the plant (or an existing project), in achieving the quality of continuity of the effluent, in accordance with local regulations. It can be used not only for urban wastewater, but also for industrial wastewater and a mix of them (urban-industrial compliant mixed).

Why get SWater?

The main peculiarities of the SWater software are:

  1. it is really able to foresee the quality of final effluent to compare law limits by using static and dynamic simulations (tested on more than five hundred wwtp);
  2. it deals with wastewater plants sized from 50 to over 5.000.000 equivalent habitants;
  3. it can be used not only for urban wastewater, but also for industrial wastewater and urban-industrial mixed;
  4. it can run with data input normally available (hydraulic load, pollution load, …);
  5. it is based on graphical and numerical simulation of the optimum operating conditions and on the use of process indicators for verifying the correct functioning of the plant;
  6. it allows to be used in design, in testing or in up-grading mode, at the same time, simply just clicking on a button;
  7. software interface “user-friendly”, so it can be used easily even by an operator with the basics of computer;
  8. it is able to develop a new sensibility in water management for professional operators
  9. it is able to get cost reduction of wastewater management at least by 18% (average);
  10. it produces Automatic Technical Reports in MS-Word! What else?

 SW2  SWReport

In spite of a large availability of existing math models available on market dealing with WWTPs Modeling, some of technical responsibles and operators have consistently complained a low applicability and flexibility to real way of working of treatment plants, in most of cases of these math models . Moreover, math modelling has largely been seen as an academic analysis, and so far from real water treatment plants effectiveness, infact they:

  • are bound by strict and rigid math patterns, with fix generic parameters as “constants” “k” as from technical-scientific literature;
  • have been made by theorist and not by workers, experts of processes;
  • require some input parameters not covered in the analysis of routine checked in laboratories (for. Ex. Soluble COD, etc.);
  • observe processes from one point of view, considering design and testing as two different approaches;
  • are based on the graphically linking of model blocks, which represent unit processes (e.g. sewer section, primary treatment, activated sludge tanks). 

 SWater is based on an holistic approach, by analysing and testing wastewater processes. It is based on the integration of traditional deterministic mathl models (IAWPRC) and heuristic knowledge based softcomputing models related to wastewater processes. SWater has been made because between theory and practice there is a difference that makes really understand the goals of treatment, which represents the added value that all the operators require to a simulation software. The difference is not on theoretical principles of operation of treatment processes; even SWater’s code is derived by theoretical models ASM1/ASM2 (Activated Sludge Models developed by the International Water Association – IWA), as all the more influential existing computer codes on the market. The difference is in how the theoretical models are used, and not in their calculations. These algorithms are compared to the reality of wastewater treatment plants and the parameters that you have actually in the field and in the case of the project, both in case of testing and/or upgrading.


  • PRELIMINARY: Screening, Grit Removal, Lifting, Equalization
  • CHEMICAL-PHISICAL: Initial-Storage/Homogenization, pH, Neutralization, Coagulation-Flocculation, Chemical Precipitation, Final Homogenization
  • PRIMARY:  Primary clarifier, Air Flotation
  • SECONDARY : Biological & Nutrient Removal, Secondary Clarifier
  • TERTIARY:  Emergy phosphorus chemical removal, Effluent Filtration, UV-C disinfection, Chlorination


So,  SWater:

  • gives possibility to interact at the same time or with the data of dimensioning, than of verification, because not bound to rigid mathematical models;
  • doesn’t need to calibrate of the theoretical models “k” because it uses a heuristic approach (non deterministic), very close to actual operating conditions of real plants;
  • has been realized to satisfy the needs of operators;
  • uses operative data and input normally available (hydraulic load, pollution load, …);
  • provides rapid analysis with minimum sustainable number of data input;
  • considers design and testing as two point of view of the same target: a designed WWTP should satisfy its testing, and a tested WWTP should satisfy its design;
  • identifies “working area” of each treatment section: a visual indicator detects the process efficiency parameters in their range-ability, in order to notify by “earlywarning” (near end-scale), a critical process-event in progress;
  • provides global view information about the process;
  • provides “just in time” information that guide the operator in selecting the most appropriate system solutions based on the real needs of field;
  • provides to control the quality of the final effluent, continually;
  • provides a trend behaviour of the treatment plants;
  • provides statistic integration of hourly load data;
  • doesn’t use a graphical layout for the design of the plant, and so it is easy to use even for non-designers;
  • calculates both construction and operative costs, with reference to the algorithms used in action plans;
  • provides a supply report automatically in Word format, which allows the operator to have clear and documented design and testing operations at the end of each operation.

SWATER SWATER-Libro[S.I./U.S. Units Converter] Tool  (add-on)

Advantages and InnovationSWATER is a flexible instrument that allows the matching between theory and practical experience. It is expected interdisciplinary integration (kinetics, biology, chemistry, etc.) between theoretical and practical methods, using artificial intelligence.


SWATER Procedure & Algorithms: 


quoteSW3 Bank transfer/Fast Download

[EN] Water Footprint


Global Water Footprint Standard

The Global Water Footprint Standard – developed through a joint effort of the Water Footprint Network, its partners, and scientists of the University of Twente in the Netherlands – has garnered international support from major companies, policymakers, NGOs and scientists as an important step toward solving the world’s ever increasing water problems. The standard is contained in the Water Footprint Assessment Manual.

[EN] Water Quality Sensor Technology

EPA – Commonly Used Water Quality Sensors Can Detect Intentional Drinking Water Contamination

Free chlorine and total organic carbon sensors most successful for detecting contamination in tests using selected biological and chemical contaminants.

EPA has released Distribution System Water Quality Monitoring: Sensor Technology Evaluation Methodology and Results – A Guide for Sensor Manufacturers and Water Utilities, which summarizes the results of tests with various online (i.e., real-time) water quality sensors to see if they could provide dual use for early warning of intentional contamination, as well as monitoring general water
quality. Only sensors most commonly used by water utilities were tested.
Free chlorine and total organic carbon (TOC) sensors were the most successful in detecting a number of chemical and biological contaminants.

  • Free chlorine levels noticeably dropped in the presence of various contaminants
  • TOC sensors were successful in detecting carbon containing contaminants or carrier liquids

EPA- Distribution System Water Quality Monitoring: Sensor Technology Evaluation Methodology and Results

This report, titled “Distribution System Water Quality Monitoring: Sensor Technology Evaluation Methodology and Results – A Guide for Sensor Manufacturers and Water Utilities,” provides an overview of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) research results from investigating water quality monitoring sensor technologies that might be used to serve as a real-time contamination warning system (CWS) when a contaminant is introduced into a drinking water distribution system. EPA’s concept of CWS for protecting water distribution systems is discussed in Chapter 1.0. A principal component of such a system is online water quality monitoring.
Based on a review of available online water quality monitoring sensor technologies, an early determination was made that it was not technically feasible to accurately identify and quantify the many different types of contaminants that could potentially be introduced into the drinking water supply/distribution system. Furthermore, because online sensor technologies need to be economically suitable for mass deployment within a distribution system, EPA focused its research on identifying sensor technologies that could be used to detect anomalous changes in water quality due to contamination event(s). Once a water quality anomaly is detected, the water utility operator is alerted, and further actions (e.g., sampling and analysis) could be undertaken by the operator to identify and quantify the contaminant if necessary. This report focuses on EPA’s research on pilot-scale evaluations of available online water quality monitoring sensor instrumentation.

EPA -Water Quality Standards Academy


[EN] Water Quality EarlyWarning: 2WQI on-line index


WQI- Unfailing Water Quality

Why it is so important to measure and evaluate in real time the quality of water with respect to its conformity with the target?

It is sufficient to think about the drinkng water vulnerability, with reference both to events of accidental pollution, that intentional, but the concept also applies to the secondary water management.

Having a pre-alarm signal (Early Warning) and a timely measurement of water quality, it can preserve phenomena induced by even very dangerous for health and for the management of the same water compared with the legal requirements.

Here is showed a “knowledge model based” software sensor (2WQI), that by using the class of origin and destination of water, it is able to interpret and extrapolate the on-line Quality Index of water (on a standardized scale 0-100), and the Quality /Compliance rate (2WQI). This is a special “Fuzzy” algorithm software application, able to interpret a measure of a “cluster” of on-line low-cost sensors as:  pH / ORP, Conductivity, Turbidity, ISE, etc..

The basic concept of 2WQI comes from the most well-known (but assessable only “off-line”) WQI quality index, developed in the early ’70s by the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) to compare the quality of different water bodies and monitor the variations in time of the quality of a water body.

This algorithm is available as code to implement the common monitoring systems (PLC / SCADA).

At a glance:

  • EarlyWarning approach by use of real-time Trend Analysis. Thanks to Knowledge embedded Software Sensors, it is possible to make a Fuzzy Fusion among values from water quality on-line parameters, water process knowledge base and trend analysis forecasting, referring to required compliance of each industrial water re-use.
  •  A Bi-dimensional Water Quality Index (2WQI) will be developed as a real-time measurement of water management performance in terms of specific water quality (pollution level) and compliance (rate of respect of limits required in industrial process).

In fact, one of the technological limitations regarding the guarantee continuity and quality of the service integrated water, depends primarily on the ability to detect in real time, alarm events (early warning), the trend function and symptoms that frequently precede the occurrence of events critical process and /or operating / maintenance.

The ability to generate real-time information with the model 2WQI is an important advantage especially in the application of:

  • risk monitoring and security;
  • energy savings and process optimization;
  • monitoring of maintenance (predictive) according condition;
  • control and regulation of complex systems.

See also:  ASWR-Fuzzy-Logic-Water-Quality-Index-and-Importance-of-Water-Quality-Parame.pdf_2189


For Info:

[EN] WWTP/check: Checking Procedure for Biological Nutrient Removal Processes with evaluation of possible Energy/Cost Saving in pre-Denitrification/Nitrification scheme

WWTPWWTPcheck – Math Model 

Nitrogen Removal and Control Strategy in Continuous-Flow-Aeration 

WWTPcheck Model is based on typical Mathematical Models referring in the field (ASM 1/2/3, WPRC), but it supplemented with Performance Indicators (KPIs), which also provide information on the Residual Depurative Capacity. The predenitrification process was first developed and proposed by Ludzack and Ettinger (1962) and later modified by Barnard (1973), who completely separated the anoxic and aerobic reactors, recycling the settler underflow to the anoxic reactor, and providing an additional recycle from the aerobic to the anoxic reactor, see Figure below:


WWTPcheck Flow scheme:  Modified Ludzack-Ettinger process (Denitro/Nitro)

Main Functionalities of Evaluation of WWTPcheck  procedure:

  • Percentage of Performance of Biological Nutrient Removal Process.
  • Min/Max values of Dissolved Oxygen required to avoid process problems (bulking, etc.).
  • Characterization of Functional Parameters of the Aeration System.
  • Percentage of possible Energy Saving in the Aeration System (variable DO setpoint calculation on the base of min/max biological need…).
  • Energy required for Aeration System.
  • Percentage of Electrical Energy Cost Saving.
  • Percentage of Sludge/Waste produced and their Cost.
  • Customized Input/Output Reporting.

The WWTP/check procedure is  available in MS-Excel file (.xls or .xlsx – MS Office-Excel 2007 or compatibles) to be better used as a checking tool and test.


For info or for a quote: